R&P Entries

Articles in Journals

Owusu, S. (2021). Washback Effect of High-Stakes English Language Tests on the Learning Behaviours of Ghanaian ESL Learners. Journal of Education and Practice, 12, (30), 79-101. DOI: 2222-288x. http://www.iiste.org. ISSN: 2222-1735 ISSN

Abstract
The term washback or backwash is used in Applied Linguistics to refer to the impact of second/foreign language testing on learning behaviours, teaching practices, and curriculum design. The Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) and the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) English language tests administered by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) are high-stakes tests which have very important consequences for the junior and senior high school leavers. The English language syllabus for both junior high school and senior high school levels has listening, reading, writing, and speaking components. Unfortunately, the BECE and WASSCE English language tests do not assess students on all the language skills. Although the WASSCE English language test has oral English component (which was introduced in 1999), it assesses candidates on listening comprehension only. Since teachers and students are likely to concentrate on what is going to be assessed, there may be negative washback effect on teaching and learning of English language in junior and senior high schools in Ghana. This paper reports on the washback effect of high-stakes English language tests on the learning behaviours of Ghanaian ESL learners. A total of 344 students from 3 junior high and 5 senior high schools were purposively sampled for the study. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of data revealed that the BECE/WASSCE influenced how students learnt English, and that they wanted their teachers to concentrate on language areas that would only make them perform well in the high-stakes tests. This confirms the Alderson and Wall’s washback hypotheses that a test will influence what and how learners learn.

 

Owusu, S. & Adomako K. (2021). THE INFLUENCE OF AKAN VOWEL HARMONY ON PRONUNCIATION OF NATIVE AKAN SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH. International Journal of English Language and Linguistics Research, 9, (7), 1-10. DOI: issn2053- 6313. http:// https://doi.org/10.37745/ijellr.13. ISSN: ISSN 2053-6305

Abstract
Vowel harmony is a major phonological phenomenon in the phonological system of Akan. The vowel harmony rule in Akan is governed by the [ATR] parameter. It is a phonological process of regressive assimilation in Akan. It occurs when [-ATR] vowels are followed by [+ATR] vowels. [+ATR] vowels tend to assimilate [-ATR] vowels on the left, that is, [+ATR] feature spreads leftward to all the preceding [-ATR] vowels in a word. This paper examines the impact of this phonological phenomenon in Akan on the spoken English of native Akan speakers. We formed sentences with 20 English words in which relatively low vowels are followed by relatively high vowels. The 20 native Asante Twi speakers of English from the College of Languages Education, University of Education, Winneba were purposively sampled to read the sentences. The sentences were recorded and impressionistically transcribed and analysed. The results showed that the respondents transferred the Akan vowel harmony rule into their pronunciation of the English words administered. Keywords: Akan Vowel Harmony, Pronunciation, Twi Speakers of English

 

Samlafo, B.V, and Adakwah, D (2021). Evaluative Study of River Birim in Denkyembuor, Ghana, Using Water Quality Indices. Chemical Science International Journal, 30, (9), 39-51. DOI: 10.9734/csji/2021/v30i930253. ISSN: 2456-706X

Abstract
Aim: To evaluate water quality of the river Birim after a two-year ban as a result of illegal mining activities in the catchment areas of the river. Methodology: Samples were taken during wet and dry seasons in acid-washed plastic containers. Two water quality indices were adapted for the river under study and used in the evaluation. These were Water Quality Index (WQI) and Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI). Twelve physicochemical parameters, such as pH, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, Fluoride, and chloride which were life-threatening and generally acceptable in water quality were used to evaluate the water quality index. The computed WQI was 439.168, which fell within the unfit for drinking category with turbidity and total suspended solids positively influencing the index. Iron, (Fe), As, Mn, and Hg were used to evaluate HPI, with an index value of 39.49, which was excellent considering a critical value of 100 set, below which the water is fit for good drinking water. Conclusion: Except for heavy metal pollution, the river Birim is unfit for drinking without chemical treatment and that, the two-year ban on artisanal small-scale mining was not enough for the river to recover fully from previous pollution episodes and hence did not have any impact on water quality of the river Birim.

 

Faculty of Science EducationNov 18, 20212021/2022

Nyatsikor, M. K., Abroampa, W. K., & Esia-Donkoh, K. (2021). The influence of school type on pupils’ proficiency in selected school subjects: Implications for curriculum implementation in Ghana. Global Journal of Educational Research, 20, (2021), 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/giedr.v20i1.1. http://www.globaljournalseries.com. ISSN: 1596-6224

Abstract
This research examined the influence of private and public basic schools on pupils’ proficiency in Mathematics and English language subjects. The theoretical model that supported the study was the bioecological model of human development. The sample comprised 16,481 Primary 3 and 14, 495 Primary 6 pupils from 448 and 426 schools respectively. The research design was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Schools were sampled using a stratified random sampling technique. Data were analysed using a multilevel modelling technique. The significance or otherwise of the influence of school type on pupils’ proficiency in both subjects was assessed at p ˂ 0.001. The results showed that many pupils performed below the minimum competency level in both subjects uniquely because they attended public schools. Conversely, many pupils were found to be proficient in both subjects exclusively because they attended private schools. The research findings suggest that the type of primary schools pupils attend in Ghana significantly mattered for their academic success and the progression from one grade-level to another. The results imply that learning opportunities are not equal for all pupils. This has implications for the effective implementation of the primary school curriculum in the country. To improve upon the academic achievement of primary school children in Ghana, first, there is the need to eliminate the achievement gap between private and public schools. Keywords: School Type; Pupils; Proficiency; Mathematics: English Language

 

Faculty of Educational StudiesAug 17, 20212021/2022

Damsere-Derry, J., Adanu, E. K., Ojo, T. K., & Sam, E. F. (2021). Injury-severity analysis of intercity bus crashes in Ghana: A random parameters multinomial logit with heterogeneity in means and variances approach. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 160, (1), 106323. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106323.

Abstract
Travel by bus is an efficient, cost-effective, safe and preferred means of intercity transport in many advanced countries. On the contrary, there is huge public sentiment about the safety records of intercity buses in low- and middle-income countries given the increasing bus-involved road traffic crashes and high fatality rates. This study sought to model the injury severity of intercity bus transport in Ghana using the random parameters multinomial logit with heterogeneity in means and variances modelling technique to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the dataset. The dataset involves crash data from the 575 km long Accra-Kumasi-Sunyani-Gonokrom highway in Ghana. Four discrete crash outcome categories were considered in this study: fatal injury, hospitalized injury, minor injury, and no injury. The study observed that crashes involving pedestrians, unlicensed drivers, and drivers and passengers aged more than 60 years have a higher probability of sustaining fatal injuries. Also, speeding, wrong overtaking, careless driving and inexperienced drivers were associated with fatal injury outcomes on the highway. The incidence of intercity bus transport crashes involving larger buses and minibuses were also found to more likely result in fatalities. The probability of hospitalized injury increased for crashes that occurred in a village setting. Given these findings, the study proposed improvement of the road infrastructure, enforcing seatbelt availability and use in intercity buses, increased enforcement of the traffic rules and regulations to deter driver recklessness and speeding as well as improving the luminance of the highways. Additionally, apps that have features for customers to rate intercity bus operators, the quality of services provided, and also have the option to report reckless driving activities can be developed to promote safe and inclusive public transport in the country.

 

Esia-Donkoh, K., Bentil, J., & Nyatsikor, M. (2020). Variances in learning styles of full-time undergraduate students based on Demographic Variables. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, 8, (2), 50-70. ISSN: 2054-6297 (Print); 2054-6300 (Online)

Abstract
The study, which was based on the VAK Learning Style Model, examined the learning style preferences and variances in the learning style of full-time undergraduate students in the Department of Basic Education, University of Education, Winneba (UEW), Ghana. Using the simple random sampling technique, 621 students were involved in the study. With the use of a questionnaire, quantitative data were obtained and analysed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The study revealed that the students made use of all the three learning styles even though they dominantly preferred and used visual learning style as compared to auditory and kinesthetic learning styles. At a significance of 0.01, the study found statistically significant differences in the learning style preferences of male and female full-time undergraduate students. There were also no statistically significant differences in the learning style preferences of the students based on age, level of study and residential status. Among the recommendations is that lecturers in the Department should adopt a variety of appropriate instructional practices and strategies that may optimise the diverse learning style preferences of the students. Keywords: learning style preferences, sex, age, level of study, residential status

 

Faculty of Educational StudiesAug 03, 20212021/2022

Nyatsikor, M. K., Esia-Donkoh, K., Abroampa, W. K. (2020). The efficacy of the bioecological model of human development in predicting primary pupils’ academic achievement in Ghana and its curriculum implications. International Journal of Elementary Education, 8, (2), 20-29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijeedu.20200902.11.

Abstract
The study examined the efficacy of Bioecological Model of Human Development to predict Ghanaian Primary School pupils’ academic achievement in a National Education Assessment test in English Language and Mathematics. A total of 19458 primary 3 and 17447 primary 6 pupils from 548 schools were involved in the study. Participating schools were selected using stratified random sampling. Using a hierarchical multiple regression with a significance criterion of <0.001, pupils’ academic achievement was found to be significantly influenced by their personal characteristics, as well as the micro and macro environments they interacted in. Consistent with the theoretical model, pupils’ microsystems contributed most to their levels of academic achievement. Moreover, the impact of pupils’ personal characteristics on their academic achievement was moderated by the types of macro and macro systems they operated in. The outcome of the study validates the Model’s proposition that none of the variables operates in isolation but are mutually dependent in determining the levels of pupils’ academic achievement in a given context. It is therefore suggested curriculum developers and education policy formulators to be guided by the Model in attempts to initiate interventions to address the problem of low academic achievement among primary school pupils in Ghana. Keywords: Bioecological Model, Academic Achievement, Curriculum

 

Faculty of Educational StudiesAug 03, 20212021/2022

Nyatsikor, M. K., Abroampa, W. K., Esia-Donkoh, K. (2020). The impact of school locale on pupils’ competencies in selected subjects: Does it matter more for specific regions in Ghana?. Global Journal of Transformative Education, 2, (1), 72-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14434/gjte.v2i1.31174.

Abstract
The study examined the impact of rural and urban schools on pupils’ competencies in English Language and Mathematics tests. The sample comprised 16,481 primary 3 and 14,495 primary 6 pupils from 448 and 426 schools respectively. The schools were selected using stratified random sampling technique and the data analysed using multilevel modelling technique. The study found statistically significant differences in achievement between rural and urban school pupils at both the national and regional levels. Compared with urban school children, rural school children on the average score 2 and 4 marks less in primary 3 and 6 English Language tests respectively. Similarly, rural school children on the average earned 1 mark less in primary 3 and 6 Mathematics tests. Rural school children in the Eastern Region were most disadvantaged by scoring 6 and 8 marks less in the primary 3 and 6 English Language tests respectively when compared with their urban peers. The only exception was the Northern Region where the average achievements of rural school children were higher than their urban peers. The findings suggest that it significantly mattered which part of the country a child attends school. This runs counter to the nation’s educational policies and the realisation of the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal 4. Hence, to provide quality and inclusive education for all pupils, resources for schools and communities should be equitably distributed and effectively utilised. Keywords: School locality, Socioeconomic, Competency, Regions

 

Faculty of Educational StudiesAug 03, 20212021/2022

Mensah, R. E. A., Esia-Donkoh, K., & Quansah, D. K. (2020). Instructional supervision as perceived by teachers in public basic schools in Pokuase Education Circuit in the Ga-North Municipality, Ghana. European Journal of Education Studies, 7, (6), 196-219. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3686763.

Abstract
This study investigated the perception of teachers on instructional supervision in public basic schools in the Pokuase Education Circuit in the Ga-North Municipality of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The study, which was underpinned by the pragmatist philosophical viewpoint, adopted the convergent mixed method approach. With simple random and convenience sampling techniques, 142 participants and 10 participants were obtained for the quantitative and qualitative phases of this study respectively. All categories of items in the questionnaire had Cronbach’s alpha reliability index of 0.7 and above. The trustworthiness of the semi-structured interview guide was ensured by considering credibility transferability, dependability, confirmability, and authenticity. With the aid of Version 20 of Statistical Product for Service Solutions (SPSS), the quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation). The qualitative data were analysed using thematic approach. It was found out that the respondents perceived the clinical supervision as the most frequently used instructional supervisory practice. Cordial interpersonal relationship was perceived by the teachers as the most benefit of instructional supervision. Supervisor incompetence, supervisor work overload, and inadequate training for supervisors were identified as the top three challenges faced in the practice of instructional supervision. Among the suggestions made to improve instructional supervision in public basic schools in the Pokuase Education Circuit were training of instructional supervisors and sanctioning unprofessional conduct of instructional supervisors. Among the recommendations is that the Ga-North Municipal Education Directorate of the Ghana Education Service should organize regular in-service training for the supervisors to equip them in the use of mixed instructional supervisory types in the schools. Keywords: instructional supervision, types, benefits, challenges, measures

 

Faculty of Educational StudiesAug 03, 20212021/2022

Esia-Donkoh, K. (2020). Undergraduate sandwich students’ conceptualisation of leadership. International Journal of Psychology and Education, 4, 29-44. ISSN: 2665-0886

Abstract
The study adopted the cross-sectional survey design to investigate how sandwich students of the Department of Basic Education, University of Education, Winneba (UEW), Ghana, conceptualise leadership. It also sought to determine differences in how the students conceptualise leadership based on their sex, age, and level/professional status. Adopting a census sampling technique, 140 students were obtained for the study. A questionnaire made up of six sub-scales of leadership emphasis (trait, ability, skill, behaviour, relationship, and influence), was used to collect quantitative data. The instrument had a reliability co-efficient of 0.78. The findings from the main study revealed that the sandwich students mostly conceptualised leadership as a skill, while relationship was the least conceptualised leadership sub-scale. Apart from a statistically significant difference in means observed for influence emphasis based on sex of the students, no statistically significant differences in means were observed for the remaining five leadership sub-scales based on the students’ age, and level/professional status. It was concluded that the sandwich students have varying opinions in understanding leadership based on their different experiences in leadership situations. The findings are valuable for the lecturers of the department in understanding how sandwich students conceptualise leadership. Thus, the use of use of scenarios, case studies, role-plays, school visits, and hands on activities during lectures will enhance the students’ understanding of contemporary leadership through promotion of values such as collaboration, teamwork, independent study, critical thinking, and empowerment. Accordingly, the findings will contribute to the body of knowledge in terms of students’ conceptualisation of the concept of leadership in the 21st century. Keywords: Conceptualising Leadership, Trait, Ability, Behaviour, Skill, Relationship, Influence

 

Faculty of Educational StudiesAug 03, 20212021/2022

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